Source Characterization of Ammonia Accidental Releases for Various Storage and Process Conditions

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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Risk Management Program (RMP) rule on June 20, 1996. Ammonia is exempted from this rule only if it is stored by farmers and not intended for resale. This chemical has significant industrial applications and may be stored or processed under a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Depending on process conditions, ammonia may be released as a neutral buoyant gas or a heavier-than-air vapor cloud. According to the records of Accidental Release Information Program, ammonia is the number one chemical involved in reportable accidental release incidences. Significant research studies have focused on the source behavior of ammonia releases. Valuable data from these studies have been applied to quantify releases of ammonia. This paper provides an overview of the technical issues associated with ammonia release sources and evaluates various source term analyses provided by models such as HGSYSTEM,1 TSCREEN,2 and ALOHA.3

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