Spatial distribution and hydrochemistry of springs and seepage springs in the Lubuska Upland of western Poland

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

The major part of the Polish Plain (central Europe) was shaped during the last glaciation and so far has been considered to be poor in groundwater outflows. The present study aimed to map the groundwater outflows and to analyse their water properties in the Lubuska Upland, western Polish Plain. The mapping of the groundwater outflows was supplemented by hydrochemical analyses (major ions and trace metals) of selected outflows. Altogether, approximately 600 groundwater outflows were recorded, of which 45% were springs. The outflow water discharges ranged from 0.001 to 45 L s−1. Most of them were located at the bottom of the slopes of river valleys. The water was neutral (pH 6.9 to 8.11), with electrical conductivity from 261 to 652 μS cm−1 and average temperature ∼10 °C. The most common water type was dominated by bicarbonate, sulphates and calcium ions. The waters often exceeded the quality limits for total Fe and Mn2+. This study revealed that groundwater outflows are a common feature of the areas shaped by former glaciations and are most likely supplied by shallow aquifers.

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