Spatial Layout Planning in Sub-Surface Rail Station Design for Effective Fire Evacuation
Spatial layout planning is an important part of the underground railway station design process, taking into account its need-driven nature and the resulting infrastructure that is sized on demand. The predicted passenger flow rates are the underlining factor and are divided into 'levels of service' for space planning considerations. This paper reports on the development of a knowledge-based computer design environment capable of generating multiple spatial layout solutions, thus providing for more effective fire evacuation analysis when compared with the traditional design process. The developed programme, titled SGEvac in this research, utilizes shape grammar theory to provide for automatic generation of solutions at the reference (preliminary) design level, based on visual rules of shape recognition and replacement, their connectivity and spatial relationships. Although it has been developed to meet London Underground Station Planning Standards and Guidelines (SPSG) and related codes of practice, it has both the scope and potential for redevelopment to any other country's design legislation. Novel shape grammar and functional logic design rules that incorporate station planning design knowledge and guidance are developed and specified, along with the theoretical research. Validation of the results thus far is discussed, with a 'train on fire in a station' evacuation scenario analysed.