Studies with Centrifuge Vane and Penetrometer Apparatus in a Normal Gravity Field
Small vane and penetrometer devices have been developed to measure soil properties in models during centrifuge operation. To aid the interpretation of vane data from centrifuge models a series of tests was conducted in cakes of kaolin clay in a normal gravity field. In the experimental program the effects of disturbance during insertion, delay between insertion and rotation, rate of rotation and geometry of vane blades were investigated. The results were used to devise a scientific method of operation of the vane apparatus. Subsequent tests were all performed with a vane size of 18 mm diameter by 14 mm high. Penetrometer tests were conducted in cakes of kaolin and Gault clays. Vane shear strengths were used to calibrate the apparatus. The ratio of cone resistance to vane strength was found to increase with increasing over-consolidation ratio. The values also differed considerably between the two clays. Thus, while the penetrometer has the advantage of providing a continuous profile of resistance with depth, some care is required in converting this measurement into undrained shear strength.