Beijing has experienced rapid economic development and population growth during recent decades, aggravating water scarcity. In order to investigate the water consumption of Beijing, this paper quantitatively evaluates the water footprint (WF), the intensity of the water footprint (Iwf) and the external water dependency (WD) based on the top-down and bottom-up methods. We obtain the following major conclusions: (1) the total WF in Beijing is 353 108 m³ in 2012; per capita WF is 1,704 m³, which is 8 times that of the entity water of Beijing; (2) the Iwf in Beijing rises after 2007, indicating that there remains a great potential for improving water-use efficiency; (3) through virtual water trade, the external WF takes over 70% of the total WF annually; therefore, Beijing has faced more severe water resource stress recently; (4) through the spatial analysis of external WD, we identify that in each side of the Hu line, distribution of distance of the flow of imported virtual water shows homogeneity, and that WD in the southeast region is high and in the northwest is weak.
Water footprint of Xiamen city from production and consumption perspectives (2001–2012)
Providing a comprehensive insight, water footprint (WF) is widely used to analyze and address water-use issues. In this study, a hybrid of bottom-up and top-down methods is applied to calculate, from production and consumption perspectives, the WF for Xiamen city from 2001 to 2012. Results show that the average production WF of Xiamen was 881.75 Mm3/year and remained relatively stable during the study period, while the consumption WF of Xiamen increased from 979.56 Mm3/year to 1,664.97 Mm3/year over the study...
Phenome Research Footprint Continues to Expand
Congratulations are in order as the University of Birmingham is the most recent university to expand the footprint of metabolic phenotyping research centres around the world. As state-of-the-art metabolic phenotyping facilities able to conduct small-scale and large-scale studies in medical research and stratified medicine, the Phenome Centre Birmingham joins the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre at Imperial College London and the Singapore Phenome Centre at Nanyang Technological University as parallel research...
4 Steps to Reducing Aviation’s Carbon Footprint
We live in an increasingly hyper-mobile society with over three billion passengers being carried by the world’s airlines in 2013, and an estimated 31% growth in passenger demand by 2017. This accounts for hundreds of millions of tonnes in greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, greatly impacting global warming, climate change, and ultimately the sustainability of life on this wonderful planet we call home. It’s more important than ever in the Transportation sector to find innovative ways to decrease our...
Case study - Deep ditch minimizes footprint
Aerator/mixer system reduces effluent discharge BOD, TSS and phosphorus A goal of many communities in planning wastewater treatment facilities is to minimize the footprint, reducing land use. To reach this goal, a Chinese municipality built their oxidation ditch to deeper parameter depths than conventional designs but experienced serious process and mechanical issues. Officials found that not all aerators are equal. For tackling this deep ditch activated sludge system, the right system was the Aire-O2 Triton®...
Bioethanol water footprint: life cycle optimization for water reduction
In Thailand, the Alternative Energy Development Plan has set the target to increase the use of bioethanol to 9.00 million liters per day by 2021. To achieve this goal, both freshwater availability for energy crops and best practices in bioethanol production chain management are very important issues. Therefore, this study integrates water footprint technique with the linear programing approach in order to optimize the operations decision, focusing on water footprint of the bioethanol production chains from both...