Beijing has experienced rapid economic development and population growth during recent decades, aggravating water scarcity. In order to investigate the water consumption of Beijing, this paper quantitatively evaluates the water footprint (WF), the intensity of the water footprint (Iwf) and the external water dependency (WD) based on the top-down and bottom-up methods. We obtain the following major conclusions: (1) the total WF in Beijing is 353 108 m³ in 2012; per capita WF is 1,704 m³, which is 8 times that of the entity water of Beijing; (2) the Iwf in Beijing rises after 2007, indicating that there remains a great potential for improving water-use efficiency; (3) through virtual water trade, the external WF takes over 70% of the total WF annually; therefore, Beijing has faced more severe water resource stress recently; (4) through the spatial analysis of external WD, we identify that in each side of the Hu line, distribution of distance of the flow of imported virtual water shows homogeneity, and that WD in the southeast region is high and in the northwest is weak.
Phenome Research Footprint Continues to Expand
Congratulations are in order as the University of Birmingham is the most recent university to expand the footprint of metabolic phenotyping research centres around the world. As state-of-the-art metabolic phenotyping facilities able to conduct small-scale and large-scale studies in medical research and stratified medicine, the Phenome Centre Birmingham joins the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre at Imperial College London and the Singapore Phenome Centreat Nanyang Technological University as parallel research...
4 Steps to Reducing Aviation’s Carbon Footprint
We live in an increasingly hyper-mobile society with over three billion passengers being carried by the world’s airlines in 2013, and an estimated 31% growth in passenger demand by 2017. This accounts for hundreds of millions of tonnes in greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, greatly impacting global warming, climate change, and ultimately the sustainability of life on this wonderful planet we call home. It’s more important than ever in the Transportation sector to find innovative ways to decrease our...
Case study - Deep ditch minimizes footprint
Aerator/mixer system reduces effluent dischargeBOD,TSSand phosphorus A goal of many communities in planning wastewater treatment facilities is to minimize the footprint, reducing land use. To reach this goal, a Chinese municipality built theiroxidation ditchto deeper parameter depths than conventional designs but experienced serious process and mechanical issues. Officials found that not all aerators are equal. For tackling this deep ditch activated sludge system, the right system was theAire-O2Triton®aerator...
Bioethanol water footprint: life cycle optimization for water reduction
In Thailand, the Alternative Energy Development Plan has set the target to increase the use of bioethanol to 9.00 million liters per day by 2021. To achieve this goal, both freshwater availability for energy crops and best practices in bioethanol production chain management are very important issues. Therefore, this study integrates water footprint technique with the linear programing approach in order to optimize the operations decision, focusing on water footprint of the bioethanol production chains from both...
Adding AD To Existing Composting Site Footprint
About an hour’s drive west of Munich in southern Germany, the City of Augsburg had been served by an indoor composting facility since 1994. It was operated by Abfallverwertung Augsburg (AVA), three quarters of which was initially owned by the City of Augsburg and the districts of Aichach-Friedberg and Augsburg. Until recently, the remaining quarter was owned by a private company but as of 2015, the facility is under full public ownership.The enclosed composting operation utilized a travelling bucket-type...