Gaza Strip, a heavily populated area, is a narrow coastal strip on the Mediterranean Sea (360 km
). Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for the majority of the population. However, many human activities greatly threaten the groundwater resources and nitrate was and still is a major groundwater pollutant. Khanyounis, one of the southern governorates of Gaza Strip, is suffering from the highest nitrate concentration in the aquifer. We used a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, paired with MT3D to simulate the southern part of Gaza coastal aquifer including Khanyounis governorate. Subsequently, seven different management scenarios were examined in order to reduce the nitrate in the aquifer over the next 30 years. It was concluded that the most significant parameter effects negatively on the nitrate is the leakage of wastewater followed by over pumping from the aquifer then the using of N-fertilisers. However, combination of these management actions in addition to artificial recharge may lead to nitrate concentration values very close to WHO values in groundwater after 30 years.
Keywords: Gaza Strip, Khanyounis, groundwater, nitrate, MODFLOW, model