Keywords: biotechnology, research, industry, interdisciplinarity, innovation, financing, policy
Success factors for biotechnology: lessons from Japan, Germany and Great Britain
The development of biotechnology during the past 20 years has been driven mainly by research and industrial activities in the USA. At least two key elements contributed to the success of biotechnology in the USA: a strong science push which could draw on a well-developed research base, and an early realisation of the technological and commercial potentials of this science push. It is questionable, however, whether the US situation could be transferred to other countries. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to describe and analyse the development of biotechnology in selected countries outside the USA (Japan, Germany, and Great Britain) in order to learn more about different trajectories pursued in this field. From the comparative analysis success factors are derived which are applicable for commercialisation of biotechnology not just under the peculiar circumstances of the USA.