Surveillance of human and swine adenovirus, human norovirus and swine circovirus in water samples in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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Animal and human wastewater can potentially contaminate water sources and the treatment of drinking water may not effectively remove all contaminants, especially viruses. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the viral contamination of water used for human and animal consumption in the city of Concórdia, located in southern Brazil. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human norovirus (NoV) were searched for using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). HAdV-positive samples were tested for viral infectivity by plaque assay. The qPCR results showed that PAdV, PCV2 and HAdV genetic material were present in all sampling sites. NoV was absent in all samples. The presence of genetic material from PAdV and PCV2 was detected in 30% and 45% of the 36 analyzed samples, respectively, with an average of 102 gc mL–1 for PAdV and 104 gc mL–1 for PCV2. HAdV was present in 100% of the samples, with an average of 104 gc mL–1. However, in plaque assay, only 36% of the samples were positive. As viable particles of HAdV were found in drinking water, these results confirm that swine manure and human sewage impact surface water and groundwater, endangering water quality and indicating a potential risk to public health.

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