Surveillance of human and swine adenovirus, human norovirus and swine circovirus in water samples in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contamination of different water sources (drinking, surface and groud waters) used for human and animal consumption by PCV2, PAdV, HAdV and NoV GI and GII, in in the city of Concórdia, located in southern Brazil. The presence of genetic material of PAdV and PCV2 was respectively detected in 30% and 45% of the 36 samples analyzed. NoV was absent in all samples. HAdV genomes were present in 100% of the samples, however, in plaque assay, only 36% of the samples were positive, indicating virus viability. As swine viruses and viable particles of HAdV were found in drinking water, these results confirmed that swine manure and human sewage reach the surface water and groundwater sources, endangering water quality and indicating a potential risk to public health.

Two liters of drinking, surface and groud waters were collected monthly in Concórdia city (the larger  swine producer in Brazil located in Santa Catarina state). The period of collection was from August 2010 to January 2011. Viral particles were concentrated by electronegative membrane filtration using the principle of adsorbion/elution. PAdV, PCV2, HAdV, NoV GI and GII were quantified by qPCR.  HAdV viability was evaluated by plaque assay using in vitro infection of A-549 permissive cell line.

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