Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Wastewater

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

The uncontrolled disposal to the environment of municipal, industrial and agricultural liquid, solid and gaseous wastes constitutes one of the most serious threats to the sustainability of the human race by contaminating water sources, land and air, and by its potential contribution to global warming. With increasing population and economic growth, treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is essential to preserve public health and reduce intolerable levels of environmental degradation. In addition, adequate wastewater management is also required for preventing contamination of water bodies for the purpose of preserving the sources of clean water.

Effective wastewater management is well established in developed countries, but is still limited in developing countries. In most developing countries many people are lacking access to water and sanitation services. Collection and conveyance of wastewater out of urban neighborhoods is not yet a service provided to all the population and adequate treatment is provided only to a small portion of the collected wastewater, in most cases covering less than 10% of the municipal wastewater generated. In slums and peri-urban areas it is not rare to see raw wastewater flowing in the streets. The inadequate water and sanitation service is the main cause of diseases in developing countries.

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