John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on acute toxicity of pyrethrins to Hyalella azteca

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A series of acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca was performed to quantify the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on pyrethrins toxicity. PBO concentrations less than 4 µg/L caused no toxicity enhancement, while toxicity increased with PBO concentrations between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L. Additive toxicity calculations showed that true synergism accounted for an increase in pyrethrins toxicity (decrease in median lethal concentration, LC50) of 1.4‐ to 1.6‐fold and varied only slightly between 4 and 15 µg/L PBO, while direct toxicity of PBO accounted for an additional increase in mixture toxicity (up to 3.2‐fold) that was proportional to PBO concentration. These results can be used to assess the risk of measured or predicted co‐occurring concentrations of PBO and pyrethrins in surface waters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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