Keywords: nanostructured silica templates, nanostructured carbon, silica colloid, mesoporous silica, mesoporous carbon, hierarchical structure, nanoporous carbons, nanocomposites, nanotechnology, Korea, nanoscale materials
Synthesis of new nanostructured carbon materials using silica nanostructured templates by Korean research groups
In this review, we summarise recent advances on the synthesis of various nanoporous carbon materials using nanostructured silica templates. In particular, we will focus on the research activities in Korea for the last seven years. Many nanoporous carbons having variable pore sizes and pore structures have been synthesised using appropriate nanostructured silica materials as templates. The synthetic procedure for nanoporous carbons through mesostructured silica templates involves infiltration of carbon precursor into the template, its carbonisation, and subsequent template removal. Nanoporous carbons with high pore volumes and uniform pore sizes have been produced using silica sol nanoparticles and related nanostructured materials as templates. Mesoporous carbons with several different pore structures have been synthesised using mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-48, HMS, SBA-15 and MSU as templates. Mesocellular carbon foams have been synthesised using mesocellular silicate foam as templates. Ordered mesoporous carbons with graphitic pore walls were synthesised using soft-carbon source which can be converted to highly ordered graphite at high temperature. Carbon capsules with hollow macroporous core and mesoporous shell structures were synthesised using silica spheres with solid core and mesoporous shell structures. Using the bimodal mesoporous silica composed of 30~40 nm sized nanoparticles with 3.5 nm mesopores as a template, bimodal mesoporous carbon was synthesised. Ordered mesoporous carbon materials were synthesised through a simple direct synthetic method using as-synthesised silica/surfactant nanocomposites. Some of these nanoporous carbon materials were successfully used as adsorbents for bulky pollutants and methane gas and electrodes for supercapacitors and fuel cells.