Tar is produced from a variety of natural materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be extracted from petroleum, coal, peat and wood. Tar is a mixture of free carbons and hydrocarbons. Products bearing a resemblance to tar can be extracted from hydrocarbons. Coal tar is produced during the process of coke production as a byproduct from coal. Tar is generally used in carbon black and deep processing. Tar sand deposits contain mixtures of heavy crude and mixture of sand.
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The tar market can be fragmented on the product type and geography. On the basis of product type, the global market for tar can be segmented as birch tar, coal tar, pine tar and pitch among others. Coal tar produced during the process of coal carbonization during the coke. This is generally a high viscous black or brown liquid. The coal tar is a variable and complex mixture of phenols, heterocyclic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The end-user application of coal tar includes: pavement sealcoats, industries and medical sector. Birch tar is derived through the process of dry distillation of the bark of the birch tree. It is composed of a mixture of phenols such as xyleno, creasol, guaiacol and cresol. The end-user application of birch tree includes: disinfectant in medicine and leather dressing.
Pine tar is produced through a process of carbonization of pine wood. The process occurs in anoxic conditions at high temperatures. Pine tar consists of tar acids, tar bases and aromatic hydrocarbons. Constituents of tar differ according to the method, temperature and duration of production. Generally, pine roots and stumps are used in the traditional pine production process. The end-user application of pine tar includes: used as a wood preservative, used in manufacturing of water proof ropes and also used for skin treatment and in veterinary medicine. Pitch tar is a solid polymer extracted from petroleum coal tar and plants. Different forms of pitch tar are called as bitumen, asphalt or tar. Pitch tar produced from plants are also called resin. Pitch tar is usually used in sealing the joints of wooden sailing vessels and is the manufacturing of waterproof wooden containers and torches.
The increasing demand for tar in the industrial use, medical sector and sealing of roads are the major market growth’s drivers for the tar industry. The major constraint for the tar industry is that tar cannot be used in the extracted state, as it is generally in solid form. It is generally heated at high temperature to make it suitable for the use. The cost of heating furnace puts extra burden on the consumer side and seems to be a major constraint for the tar market. However, growing application in industrial use such as production of diesel and gasoline oil via high pressure hydrogenation and in power generation for heating boilers is expected to augment the global demand for tar in the near future.