This issues brief summarizes main water and sanitation-related commitments made by Member States at Rio+20, different proposals for integrating water and sanitation issues into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) framework, and some reflections from the Post-2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Water.
The role of adaptation in mobile technology innovation for the water, sanitation and hygiene sector
While the growing availability of mobile phones has commanded the attention of the development community, an estimated 844 million people continue to lack access to basic drinking water and 2.3 billion to adequate sanitation. Development has now begun of mobile applications to improve access to water, sanitation and hygiene services (mWASH). To understand the barriers to innovation, nine mWASH applications were studied using the Framework for Analyzing a Multi-level Innovation System (FAMIS), a conceptual model....
Treatment wetlands in decentralised approaches for linking sanitation to energy and food security
Treatment wetlands (TWs) are engineered systems that mimic the processes in natural wetlands with the purpose of treating contaminated water. Being a simple and robust technology, TWs are applied worldwide to treat various types of water. Besides treated water for reuse, TWs can be used in resources-oriented sanitation systems for recovering nutrients and carbon, as well as for growing biomass for energy production. Additionally, TWs provide a large number of ecosystem services. Integrating green infrastructure...
Innovative sanitation approaches could address multiple development challenges
Globally, more than 60% of the human population live without safely managed sanitation services or even lack access to basic sanitation facilities. In addition, most of the wastewater produced in the world is discharged without proper treatment. Integrated approaches are needed to address these issues and curb the resulting adverse impacts on public health and the environment, and associated societal economic losses. The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides an important framework...
Constraints on foreign aid effectiveness in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) sector
Numerous studies have sought to empirically test the effectiveness of foreign aid as a tool for international development, with often inconsistent or contradictory results. New sources of disaggregated aid data now allow researchers to test the impact of individual sectors of aid on sector-specific outcomes. The paper investigates the effectiveness of foreign aid in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) sector and seeks to identify constraints on WaSH aid effectiveness in recipient countries. Multilevel...
Sanitation and water supply in schools and girls' educational progression in Zambia
There is much anecdotal evidence related to the importance of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in schools for girls' educational progression, yet a lack of comprehensive quantitative studies on linkages between WASH and educational indicators disaggregated by gender and grade. This paper aims to fill that gap by testing the hypothesis that the presence of water and sanitation facilities in schools can increase female-to-male enrolment ratios and reduce repetition and drop-out-ratios for girls, especially at...