John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tenax extraction of sediments to estimate desorption and bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants: A literature review

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A major issue with characterizing sediment‐associated hydrophobic contaminants is the difficulty in assessing the total amount of compound that is available for chemical exchange with an organism. To address this point, contaminant concentrations have been normalized for specific sediment characteristics, including organic carbon content, or the chemical activity has been estimated using passive samplers. Another approach to assess compound availability is to determine the extent of readily desorbed compound using resin extractions of sediment slurries. The current paper reviews the literature using Tenax TA, a p‐2,6‐diphenylphyleneoxide polymer as an extraction tool for measuring bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediment. The extent of desorption has been assessed with sequential extractions to characterize the maximum rate and pool sizes for different desorbing fractions of bound contaminant. The rapidly desorbing fraction has been well correlated with the extent of degradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of hydrophobic contaminants. A shortcut to measuring the full desorption curve for determining the rapidly desorbing compound is to use a single‐point extraction, with 6 or 24 h extractions being most common. The Tenax extraction has been shown to be effective with laboratory‐spiked sediments, field‐collected sediments, laboratory‐exposed organisms, field‐collected organisms and studies among laboratories, and a literature‐based model has been developed that described the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls from independently measured field‐collected sediments. Despite the success of this approach, application of the Tenax method for management of contaminated sediments is limited by the absence of a standard set of conditions for performing the extractions and standard methods for using field sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC

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