Since sources of corruption stem from, but are not limited to, the lack of transparency and accountability in the public sector, this paper sets out to examine if there is a connection between a nation's personal disposable income levels for public employees, when measured by higher personal income tax rates and lower real wage rates, and the level of public corruption found in these countries. We look at a simple contributing factor, disposable income, measured by personal income tax rates and purchasing power parity, as a primary reason for corruption in a country. The research adds to the theory of corruption knowledge in that as a developing country moves towards becoming a developed country, the components of measuring corruption change and evolve. We found that developing nations' public-sector employees place more emphasis on sociological determinants and tax rate contributions as factors contributing toward corruption, whereas developed nations place more emphasis on securing wealth from a standard of living aspect as well as from gains in equities markets.
- Inderscience Publishers
- The corruption factor: how public sector employees influence the ...
EPA Announces Public Hearing For Proposed Renewables Enhancement and Growth Support Rule
On November 10, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice in the Federal Register for a public hearing for the proposed “Renewables Enhancement and Growth Support Rule.” The proposed rule, available on EPA’s website, was signed by EPA’s Administrator on October 3, 2016, but has not yet been published in the Federal Register. This proposed rule will enhance the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program as well as other fuel regulations to support the growth of renewable...
Four steps well owners can take to protect their water wells, health during flooding
The owners of private household water wells in areas of flooding should act to address possible threats to their drinking water quality, the National Ground Water Association said today. If a well has been flooded: Do not drink the water or wash with it, but use an alternative supply such as bottled water Stay away from the well pump while it’s flooded to avoid electrical shock Get a qualified water well contractor or pump installer to — Clean and turn on the pump Flush the well Disinfect...
The importance of public acceptance to boost Europe’s natural gas projects
Gastech News: What are the key issues affecting your business within the gas industry today? Thijs Starink: First and foremost, the Groningen earthquakes, which are causing a lot of turmoil in the Netherlands, and have over the last 3 years eroded public acceptance for the gas exploration and production industry. Then, the lower oil and gas prices are another important issue. Gas prices were less affected than oil prices, but they’ve also gone down considerably in the last 6 months, and that’s...
EPA Close To Publicizing 2017 And 2018 Renewable Fuel Standard Volumes
On April 15, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sent its newly proposed Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) volumes for 2017 and 2018 to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review. Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), EPA must set standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel by November 30 of the year before the standard is set for, and 14 months before the year that the biodiesel standard is set for. EPA`s issuance of the RFS volumes to...
OECD Issues New Publications in Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has issued the following publications in its Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials: No. 55 — Harmonized Tiered Approach to Measure and Assess the Potential Exposure to Airborne Emissions of Engineered Nano-Objects and their Agglomerates and Aggregates at Workplaces: The primary goal of this publication is to describe a reliable formal methodology for conducting consistent exposure related measurements and assessments of...