John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metalaxy‐M on earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

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As the main optical isomer of metalaxyl, metalaxyl‐M has been widely used worldwide in recent years due to its notable effect on the prevention and control of crop‐diseases. Together with the toxicity and degradation of metalaxyl‐M, the chemical has attracted the attention of researchers. The present study examined the toxic effects of metalaxyl‐M on earthworms at 0, 0.1, 1 and 3 mg kg−1 on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days after exposure. The results showed that metalaxyl‐M could cause an obvious increase in the production of ROS when the concentration was higher than 0.1 mg kg−1, which led to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. Metalaxyl‐M can induce DNA damage in earthworms, and the level of DNA damage markedly increased with increasing the concentration of metalaxyl‐M. Metalaxyl‐M also has a serious influence on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which results in irreversible oxidative damage in cells. The changes of these indicators all indicated that metalaxyl‐M may cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on earthworms. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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