Keywords: ICT clusters, IT-related development policies, urban, regional, systems of innovation, organising capacity, multinationals, foreign direct investment, capital regions, peripheral regions, local policy, national policy, national context, information and communication technology, information society
The development of ICT clusters in European cities: towards a typology
This article is based on the results of the EU-funded research project 'MUTEIS' (Macro-economic and Urban Trends in Europe's Information Society), that aims to provide deeper insights in the emerging digital economies in urban regions. The information and communication technology (ICT) sector is at the centre of interest to cities. In the 1990s, many of them invested heavily in developing and attracting this promising sector. Almost every city has developed and implemented ambitious policies to promote the local ICT sector. But not every city has benefited to the same extent from its rapid growth: there are substantial quantitative and qualitative differences between urban regions. This study reviews the development of ICT clusters across Europe, and assesses the role of local and national policies in this field. It highlights the diversity of cluster development paths in different local and national contexts.