Keywords: renewable energy, industrial competitiveness, exports, employment
The energy, environment, technology nexus
The past century has seen revolutionary changes in the world's primary energy sources and the way those are utilised. New technologies have evolved rapidly to exploit new sources of energy, with far-reach effects on the world's environment. The world's energy profile at the beginning of the 21st Century looks very different from that of the start of the 20th Century. New drivers, particularly concern for the environment, are bringing about rapid technology changes. Other key factors such as energy market liberalisation, globalisation of the world's economy and the changing structure of international businesses promise to transform the energy, environment and technology nexus even more rapidly than the past century. Understanding the dynamics of this transformation is crucial if policy makers are to be able to guide the transformation process. Particularly to mitigate the effects of global climate change.