Keywords: incubators, triple helix, innovation, Brazil, science policy, technology policy, higher education, university participation, university-industry-government collaboration, cooperation
The evolution of the incubator movement in Brazil
Incubators started to appear in Brazil towards the end of the 1980s and the original concept arose within a context of changes in policy direction for Brazilian science and technology. They were considered to be a useful mechanism, or organisational format, for bringing about the greater participation of the universities in the country's socio-economic development, particularly by forging closer links between the academic world, industry and government. The incubators operating in Brazil cover a wealth of different types, including Technology Based Incubators, Traditional Incubators, Mixed Incubators, Cooperative Incubators and Private Incubators. The take-off of the Brazilian incubator movement is analysed as a non-linear triple helix science policy, the result of a series of initiatives taken from the institutional spheres of university, industry and government, which built upon and supported each other's efforts.