John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The Gellyfish: An in‐situ equilibrium‐based sampler for determining multiple free metal ion concentrations in marine ecosystems

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Free metal ions are usually the most bioavailable and toxic metal species to aquatic organisms, but they are difficult to measure due to their extremely low concentrations in the marine environment. Many of the current methods for determining free metal ions are complicated, time‐consuming, and can only measure one metal at a time. The authors developed a new version of the 'Gellyfish', an in‐situ equilibrium‐based sampler, with significantly reduced equilibration time and the capability of measuring multiple free metal ions simultaneously. By calibrating the Gellyfish to account for its uptake of cationic metal complexes and validating them in multi‐metal competition experiments, the authors were able to determine free metal ion concentrations previously collected over ten months at five locations in Boston Harbor for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd. This work generated one of the largest free metal ion datasets and demonstrated the applicability of the Gellyfish as an easy‐to‐use and inexpensive tool for monitoring free ion concentrations of metal mixtures in marine ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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