The traditional use of long-term average consumption records and “peak factors” to determine water network design criteria does not account for allotment-scale diurnal water use patterns which impact upon the dynamics of water distribution systems. The diversity of allotment-scale diurnal water use patterns directly impacts on network dynamics. Demand management and rainwater tanks are likely to impact upon the diurnal patterns of water flows in a water supply network. Results presented in this study suggest that rainwater tanks with mains water trickle top-up produce diurnal “mains water” use patterns different to “household” water use patterns, and when simulated correctly, significantly reduced peak hour “mains water” demand. This outcome impacts upon water supply network design criteria and provided opportunities to offset water infrastructure costs. There is a need to investigate diurnal mains water use patterns resulting from source control measures, such as demand management and rainwater tanks, on peak hour mains water demand in water supply distribution systems and their impact on network design criteria.
Keywords: diurnal water use patterns, peak hour demand, PURRS, urban water system design