John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The influence of salinity on acute nickel toxicity to the two euryhaline fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus

0
Nickel (Ni) is a common pollutant found in aquatic environments, and may be harmful at elevated concentrations. Increasing salinity has been shown to decrease the bioavailability and toxicity of other metals to aquatic organisms. In this study, acute Ni toxicity experiments (96‐h) were conducted at various salinities (0‐36 ppt) in order to determine the effects of salinity on Ni toxicity to two euryhaline fish species, Kryptolebias marmoratus and Fundulus heteroclitus. Ni concentrations causing lethality to 50% of the fish (LC50s) ranged from 2.0 mg Ni/L in moderately hard freshwater to 66.6 mg Ni/L in 36 ppt saltwater. Ni toxicity to F. heteroclitus decreased linearly with increasing salinity; whereas Ni toxicity to K. marmoratus was only lowered by salinities above 6 ppt, demonstrating potential physiological differences between the two species when they are functioning as freshwater fish. Further, we investigated the influence of Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and Cl− on Ni toxicity to F. heteroclitus. Freshwater with up to 120 mg/L Ca2+, as CaSO4, 250 mg/L Mg2+, as MgSO4, or 250 mg/L Na+, as NaHCO3 did not provide protection against Ni toxicity. Alternatively, 250 mg/L Na+, as NaCl was protective against Ni toxicity; and the extent of protection was similar to that demonstrated from saltwater with the same Cl− concentration. These results suggest that Cl− is the predominant ion responsible for reducing Ni toxicity to K. marmoratus and F. heteroclitus in higher salinity waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC

Customer comments

No comments were found for The influence of salinity on acute nickel toxicity to the two euryhaline fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus. Be the first to comment!