John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The interactive effect of an emerging infectious disease and an emerging contaminant on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles

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Two factors influencing amphibian population declines are infectious diseases and exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. We examined an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and its interaction with an emerging contaminant, the antimicrobial triclosan. We first conducted, a two x two x four factorial study to examine the interactive impacts of dragonfly predator cues, Bd, and triclosan (0, 10, 100, 1000 µg/L) on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles. We measured the lethal and sub‐lethal impacts of these stressors on tadpoles over four weeks. All tadpoles in the 100 and 1000 µg/L concentrations of triclosan died within 24 h of exposure, but tadpoles in the low concentration (10 µg/L) survived. Tadpoles exposed to only Bd (no triclosan) exhibited a low survival rate (67.5%) while those exposed to both 10µg/L triclosan and Bd exhibited a high survival rate (91.1%) implying that triclosan inhibits Bd on tadpoles. Bd and predator cue exposure individually increased the developmental rate of the surviving tadpoles but this effect was absent when these factors were combined with triclosan. In a follow‐up study we found Bd growth in culture was significantly inhibited at 10 µg/L concentration of triclosan and completely inhibited at 100 µg/L. These findings suggest that interactions among multiple stressors can be complex and require examination in conjunction with one another to evaluate actual impacts to aquatic fauna. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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