Keywords: industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis, utility sharing, stakeholder decision-making, breakthrough projects, sustainable enterprises, sustainability capabilities, The Netherlands
The introduction and dissemination of the industrial symbiosis projects in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex
The dissemination and implementation of the Industrial Symbiosis projects in the Rotterdam Harbour and Industry Complex can be characterised by break-through projects on the basis of long-term industrial ecology projects. The first 4-year Industrial Symbiosis programme started in 1994 and generated the basis for 15 projects that were further developed in a second 4-year programme that started in 1999 and merged into a 8-years Sustainable Enterprises programme in 2003. This development at the system level is created through the activities of individual organisation in a dynamic, loosely coupled network. The concept of sustainability capabilities is used to analyse the way in which these activities lead to the development of the system.