John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The naturally occurring carcinogen ptaquiloside (PTA) is present in groundwater below bracken vegetation

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The present study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of the natural carcinogen ptaquiloside and its transformation product pterosin B in groundwater and surface water. Groundwater concentrations up to 0.23 nmol/L (92 ng/L) ptaquiloside and up to 2.2 nmol/L (0.47 µg/L) pterosin B were found. Five of 21 groundwater samples contained ptaquiloside exceeding the estimated threshold for drinking water (1.3–40 pmol/L). The results are critical for water abstraction in bracken infested areas. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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