Keywords: biotechnology, performance measurement, indicators, Europe, USA, United States, EU, European Union, science, commercialisation
The performance of European countries in biotechnology: how does Europe compare to the USA?
This paper presents an analysis of the performance of the European Union (EU) member states and the USA in biotechnology based on various science, technology and commercialisation indicators. The performance analysis shows that European countries can be grouped into three clusters: Cluster 1, with the best-performing countries, includes Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Cluster 2 performs at a level that is roughly similar to the European median and includes Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland, Norway, Germany, France and the UK. Cluster 3 – Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal and Luxembourg – performs well below the European median. The best-performing European countries achieve higher performance scores than the USA. Within the whole spectrum of the considered European countries, the USA would be positioned in the first half. The comparison of the scientific and commercialisation performance of the individual countries reveals clear evidence for a positive correlation between scientific and commercial performance.