The role of backwash in start-up of full-scale drinking water biofilters
The purpose of backwashing during the start-up period of rapid biofilters at drinking water treatment plants differs significantly from the purpose of backwashing during normal operation. During start-up, finished water quality is secondary, detachment of microorganisms must be minimized, dust present in the original filter media must be removed and inherent inoculation of the biofilter with water used for backwashing must be considered. Investigations over a 9-week start-up period at a full-scale waterworks showed a strong correlation between suspended solids and turbidity, and that fine particles present in the original filter media were removed over a period of several weeks. In addition, after an initial period in which iron accumulated on the filter was not removed by backwash, iron was removed with 80% efficiency. Backwashing had 0% efficiency in removing manganese from the filter media. Practical conclusions include that shortened backwash procedures during start-up may be preferable, turbidity may be used as a surrogate for suspended solids in backwash effluent, filter media may be pre-treated by exaggerated backwashing to remove fine particles before start-up, and that a reasonable backwash procedure for future operation of the filter may be defined early in the start-up period.