Keywords: sol–gel, steric stabilisation, commercial surfactants, sunscreen lotions, Pickering emulsion, titania nanoparticles, nanotechnology, cosmetics industry, suntan lotions
The synthesis and use of steric–stabilised titania nanoparticles in Pickering–emulsion preparation
We employed the well–accepted sol–gel process to synthesise spherical titania nanoparticles of narrow size range 290 nm to 1,600 nm by mixing reactants such as titanium tetra isopropoxide (precursor), organic solvents (ethanol and isopropanol) and for the steric stabilisation, commercial surfactants (Brij 30, Brij 72, Brij 76 and Marlinat 242/28). Experimentally, the size distribution of synthesised titania nanoparticles vary with type and concentration of reactants, process sequence and duration at rest after synthesis. Also, Pickering–emulsion samples were prepared by stabilising oil–in–water emulsions with the synthesised titania nanoparticles. The study is meant to contribute to the research on preparation of Pickering–emulsion, further processed as sunscreen lotions in the cosmetic industry.