To meet the challenges of the increased competition for the planet's freshwater resources, it is necessary to align international water law with the United Nation's sustainable development goals (SDGs).1 This work considers the evolution of the duty to cooperate in the context of shared transboundary waters and argues that we now witness the emergence of the duty to cooperate in the peaceful management of the world's water resources as an obligation erga omnes imposable on all states. At the heart of our argument are three fundamental tenets: information international law has the inherent capacity to, and is in the process of, transforming to address global water-related imperatives;2 (ii) the rules of international law that apply to shared water resources require a consolidated and a consolidating framework in order to address the global water crisis within and across national borders; (iii) the very notion of state sovereignty, recast in our contemporary setting, supports and provides the legal parameters for the crystallisation of an obligation erga omnes to ensure 'water for all' as a duty and entitlement of the international community as a whole.
The marine environment and ballast water management law
This article contains a study of international and national measures dealing with the potential threat of pollution and the introduction of alien species that may come from the discharge of improperly treated ballast water. Ballast water management policy, law and coastal biosecurity strategies are considered. There are challenges to achieving the ideals of ballast water laws, as correctly pointed out by President Denholm of the Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO), such as the cost of achieving...
Biotechnology and International Law
As its title suggests, this book deals with possible impacts of modern biotechnology on international law and how international law can be adapted to meet the new challenges presented by such technology. It grew out of a collective research project in the period between 2003 and 2005 by a number of scholars and experts in this field, including academics, practitioners and officials of international organisations. The book is divided into five parts, covering general aspects, and implica¬tions of biotechnology...
Rising to the challenge of water security: international (water) law in need of refinement
The sustainable management of the worlds freshwater resources is one of the most daunting challenges faced by the global community. Increasing local and transboundary tensions over the control of water not only cause disruptions in socioeconomic development, but also threaten the very foundation of international security. However, this crisis is also a time of opportunity the opportunity to drive new thinking in international water law forward. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this discourse by (1)...
Population and water in the Middle East: the challenge and opportunity for law
Although it is commonplace today to argue that population growth drives many or most environmental problems, Jane Jacobs has questioned the prevailing view, noting that the empirical evidence for it is actually rather slim. This article presents a case study of the pressures that population places on water in the Middle East, concluding that the countries of the region suffer from inappropriate patterns of water use rather than from excessive population. Heavy reliance on agriculture for employment or to earn...
Principles of international water law: creating effective transboundary water resources management
This article summarises the principles of international water law related to transboundary water resources management and analyses to what extent these principles are incorporated in recent international conventions and treaties. The study reveals that principle of equitable and reasonable utilisation, obligation not to cause significant harm, principles of cooperation, information exchange, notification, consultation and peaceful settlement of disputes are widely acknowledged by modern international conventions,...