The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that forms two functionally distinct complexes important for nutrient and growth factor signaling. Both complexes phosphorylate a hydrophobic motif on downstream protein kinases, which contributes to the activation of these kinases. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylates S6K1, while mTORC2 phosphorylates Akt. The TSC1-TSC2 complex is a critical negative regulator of mTORC1. However, how mTORC2 is regulated and whether the TSC1-TSC2 complex is involved are unknown. We find that mTORC2 isolated from a variety of cells lacking a functional TSC1-TSC2 complex is impaired in its kinase activity toward Akt. Importantly, the defect in mTORC2 activity in these cells can be separated from effects on mTORC1 signaling and known feedback mechanisms affecting insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Our data also suggest that the TSC1-TSC2 complex positively regulates mTORC2 in a manner independent of its GTPase-activating protein activity toward Rheb. Finally, we find that the TSC1-TSC2 complex can physically associate with mTORC2 but not mTORC1. These data demonstrate that the TSC1-TSC2 complex inhibits mTORC1 and activates mTORC2, which through different mechanisms promotes Akt activation.
- American Society for Microbiology
- The TSC1-TSC2 complex is required for proper activation of mTOR ...
Separation of colors and scents from candle wax
Separation and detection and additives from scented candles While electric lighting has have largely replaced candles as a light source, they are still popular for decorative purposes. Originally from bees’ wax, modern candles are typically made from paraffin or stearin. Often, coloring and scents are added to candles. These additives can be separated from the candle wax by chromatography. The paraffin which is the main constituent in modern candles is apolar and thus dissolved in normal phase chromatography...
Sepacore for the Separation of Plant Extracts - Case Study
Customer: University of Basel, SwitzerlandThe Division of Pharmaceutical Biology at the University of Basel in Switzerland is a center of excellence for natural product and medicinal plant research. It belongs to the Departement of Pharmaceutical Sciences, a leading research and teaching center in drug discovery & development, drug therapy and drug safety. Research groups collaborate and teach in the areas of lead discovery, molecular mechanisms of drug action and drug toxicity, rational drug design, pharmacoth...
Separation and identification of hormone-active compounds using a combination of chromatographic ...
AbstractArxula adeninivorans-based yeast cell assays for the detection of steroid hormones demonstrated their efficiency for the determination of total hormone activity in a variety of samples using a microtiter plate format. In this study, a preliminary chromatographic separation using thin-layer chromatography plates is introduced in order to allow a rapid identification of the compounds responsible for this hormonal activity. The yeast whole cell assay can then be performed on the plate, producing a detectable...
Solid–liquid separation of an effluent produced by a fixed media biofilm reactor
An experimental study dedicated to the characterization of the settleability of solids produced in immersed fixed media biofilm reactors has been carried out. The influence of operating temperature (0.1 to 16 °C) and surface organic loading rate (OLR) (0.4 to 10 g of soluble carbonaceous BOD5 per m2 of media per day) on settleable solids quantities, particle size distributions (PSD) as well as flocs morphology was evaluated. Results have shown that the OLR has no statistically significant influence on the settleabi...
Italy - Cans, radiators and cables recycling - Case Study
Customer: TECNOMETAL S.r.l.Country: ItalyMachinery: LINE FOR CANS, RADIATORS AND CABLES’ RECYCLINGGuidetti line, composed by PMG1200 electric pre-shredder, magnetic overbelt, granulator 950, dosing conveyor with zig-zag, Turbo625/4 and separator Robi71, complete with anti-explosion filter 16000 m³, with production from 800 to 1200 kg/h, based on the material processed. Its versatility has no equal.