The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that forms two functionally distinct complexes important for nutrient and growth factor signaling. Both complexes phosphorylate a hydrophobic motif on downstream protein kinases, which contributes to the activation of these kinases. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylates S6K1, while mTORC2 phosphorylates Akt. The TSC1-TSC2 complex is a critical negative regulator of mTORC1. However, how mTORC2 is regulated and whether the TSC1-TSC2 complex is involved are unknown. We find that mTORC2 isolated from a variety of cells lacking a functional TSC1-TSC2 complex is impaired in its kinase activity toward Akt. Importantly, the defect in mTORC2 activity in these cells can be separated from effects on mTORC1 signaling and known feedback mechanisms affecting insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Our data also suggest that the TSC1-TSC2 complex positively regulates mTORC2 in a manner independent of its GTPase-activating protein activity toward Rheb. Finally, we find that the TSC1-TSC2 complex can physically associate with mTORC2 but not mTORC1. These data demonstrate that the TSC1-TSC2 complex inhibits mTORC1 and activates mTORC2, which through different mechanisms promotes Akt activation.
- American Society for Microbiology
- The TSC1-TSC2 complex is required for proper activation of mTOR ...
Sepacore for the Separation of Plant Extracts - Case Study
Customer: University of Basel, SwitzerlandThe Division of Pharmaceutical Biology at the University of Basel in Switzerland is a center of excellence for natural product and medicinal plant research. It belongs to the Departement of Pharmaceutical Sciences, a leading research and teaching center in drug discovery & development, drug therapy and drug safety. Research groups collaborate and teach in the areas of lead discovery, molecular mechanisms of drug action and drug toxicity, rational drug design, pharmacoth...
Separation and identification of hormone-active compounds using a combination of chromatographic ...
Arxula adeninivorans-based yeast cell assays for the detection of steroid hormones demonstrated their efficiency for the determination of total hormone activity in a variety of samples using a microtiter plate format. In this study, a preliminary chromatographic separation using thin-layer chromatography plates is introduced in order to allow a rapid identification of the compounds responsible for this hormonal activity. The yeast whole cell assay can then be performed on the plate, producing a detectable signal...
Solid–liquid separation of an effluent produced by a fixed media biofilm reactor
An experimental study dedicated to the characterization of the settleability of solids produced in immersed fixed media biofilm reactors has been carried out. The influence of operating temperature (0.1 to 16 °C) and surface organic loading rate (OLR) (0.4 to 10 g of soluble carbonaceous BOD5 per m2 of media per day) on settleable solids quantities, particle size distributions (PSD) as well as flocs morphology was evaluated. Results have shown that the OLR has no statistically significant influence on the settleabi...
Italy - Cans, radiators and cables recycling - Case Study
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How waste and recycling are separated at the French Open - Case Study
Once again, the French Open (Roland-Garros) is setting new standards in sustainability and recycling! Over the past few years, the French Tennis Federation and Roland Garros have aimed to increase awareness of recycling and reduce waste with a system of waste separation. At the 2016 French Open (May 16-June 5, 2016), twenty-eight SmartPack Trash Compactors and Recycling Compactors are positioned side-by-side at Roland-Garros. Recycling More, Wasting Less with SmartPack Trash Compactors In 2014, 8 tons of...