The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that forms two functionally distinct complexes important for nutrient and growth factor signaling. Both complexes phosphorylate a hydrophobic motif on downstream protein kinases, which contributes to the activation of these kinases. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylates S6K1, while mTORC2 phosphorylates Akt. The TSC1-TSC2 complex is a critical negative regulator of mTORC1. However, how mTORC2 is regulated and whether the TSC1-TSC2 complex is involved are unknown. We find that mTORC2 isolated from a variety of cells lacking a functional TSC1-TSC2 complex is impaired in its kinase activity toward Akt. Importantly, the defect in mTORC2 activity in these cells can be separated from effects on mTORC1 signaling and known feedback mechanisms affecting insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Our data also suggest that the TSC1-TSC2 complex positively regulates mTORC2 in a manner independent of its GTPase-activating protein activity toward Rheb. Finally, we find that the TSC1-TSC2 complex can physically associate with mTORC2 but not mTORC1. These data demonstrate that the TSC1-TSC2 complex inhibits mTORC1 and activates mTORC2, which through different mechanisms promotes Akt activation.
- American Society for Microbiology
- The TSC1-TSC2 complex is required for proper activation of mTOR ...
Italy - Cans, radiators and cables recycling - Case Study
Customer: TECNOMETAL S.r.l.Country: ItalyMachinery: LINE FOR CANS, RADIATORS AND CABLES’ RECYCLINGGuidetti line, composed by PMG1200 electric pre-shredder, magnetic overbelt, granulator 950, dosing conveyor with zig-zag, Turbo625/4 and separator Robi71, complete with anti-explosion filter 16000 m³, with production from 800 to 1200 kg/h, based on the material processed. Its versatility has no equal.
How waste and recycling are separated at the French Open - Case Study
Once again, the French Open (Roland-Garros) is setting new standards in sustainability and recycling! Over the past few years, the French Tennis Federation and Roland Garros have aimed to increase awareness of recycling and reduce waste with a system of waste separation. At the 2016 French Open (May 16-June 5, 2016), twenty-eight SmartPack Trash Compactors and Recycling Compactors are positioned side-by-side at Roland-Garros. Recycling More, Wasting Less with SmartPack Trash Compactors In 2014, 8 tons of...
Measurement of oxygen during the purification of glycerin – Case Study
Background informationGlycerin is a basic chemical which is used in creams and ointments, in antifreeze and brake fluid for vehicles, as a plasticizer, and as a base for paints and lacquers. Glycerin is produced as a by-product during the manufacture of soap. This was the main source of glycerin for many years. However, the production of biodiesel has increased greatly in the last decade, and glycerin is also a by-product of this process. All vegetable oils contain glycerin, a heavy trivalent alcohol. During the...
How Arsenic Biological Filtration Systems Can Improve Your Life
Water is the foundation of human existence. It’s used for cooking, bathing, cleaning, and most importantly, drinking. Unfortunately, water is often dirty and contaminated, especially when it’s pulled from groundwater sources and wells. Since many cities have been shown to have low-grade drinking water, concern has increased about water quality. Many people are wondering if their water is safe to use and drink. Some may even be wondering if there’s anything they can do. Thankfully, there is....
Preparation of a novel chloromethylated polystyrene-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole chelating resin ...
With an efficient methodology, a novel chloromethylated polystyrene-g-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole chelating resin (MTR resin) was prepared via a one-step reaction. The structure of MTR resin was characterized by elements analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the adsorption properties of the resin for Hg(II) were investigated by batch and column experiments. The results showed that the resin possessed much better adsorption...