The present study aimed to evaluate the stability of Human Adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2) and Murine Norovirus 1 (MNV-1) in surface freshwater samples stored at different temperatures. For HAdV2 the stability decreased with increasing temperatures (−80 > −20 > 4 > 22 °C). The time required to reach one log reduction in viral titers (T90) was similar among all the times and temperatures by different cell-culture based methods and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The HAdV2 stability decreased with the time of storage temperature and methods employed, aside from samples stored at 22 and 4 °C which showed the lowest T90 values (50 days). For MNV-1, the samples stored at 22 and −20 °C showed higher log10 decay values, followed by 4 and −80 °C; while genome persistence was ranked as −80 > −20 > 4 > 22 °C. The T90 values were lower for samples stored at 22 °C (33 days), followed by 4, −20 and −80 °C with 111, 100 and 333 days, respectively. The results indicate that, under laboratory storage conditions, freshwater samples should be kept at 4 °C and at −80 °C for short- and long-term periods, respectively. This study provided useful information about thermal and temporal stability of the enteric viruses regarding sample storage conditions.
Validation of Arxula Yeast Estrogen Screen assay for detection of estrogenic activity in water ...
Abstract Endocrine-active substances can adversely impact the aquatic ecosystems. A special emphasis is laid, among others, on the effects of estrogens and estrogen mimicking compounds. Effect-based screening methods like in vitro bioassays are suitable tools to detect and quantify endocrine activities of known and unknown mixtures. This study describes the validation of the Arxula-Yeast Estrogen Screen (A-YES®) assay, an effect-based method for the detection of the estrogenic potential of water and waste...
Sample preparation is the key to quality analysis with a laser analyser
Sample preparation is the most important step of any chemical analysis. To get the best results with any elemental alloy analyser regardless of the technology, the sample must be clean before taking a measurement. Otherwise the results are always compromised at least to some extent. The effect of dirty surfaces will vary and some technologies are more forgiving to sample surface conditions than others. How well an analyser can tolerate dirty surfaces depends on many variables such as the nature of physical...
Surface/bathing water monitoring (Denmark) - Case Study
In order to find the possible fecal sources to the sporadic high concentrations of bacteria, the municipality of Hjørring (DK) has set up a BACTcontrol in the ditch to monitor the E.coli levels.For this purpose the BACTcontrol is built into a movable trailer and powered by solar panels. This allows the BACTcontrol to run continuously (6 samples per day) for 7-14 days depending on the sunlight concentration.
New technique for direct fluoroimmunomagnetic detection of rotavirus in water samples
A new rapid, sensitive and selective method for rotavirus detection in water samples is described in this paper. Amino pink magnetic microparticles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies and used to capture, concentrate, separate and detect infectious rotavirus particles in distilled and drinking water samples. The fluorescence of the microparticles was used to determine the presumptive presence of rotaviruses by using confocal microscopy. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were...
Influence of surface modification by sulfuric acid on coking coal's adsorption of coking wastewater
Coking coal, the raw material of a coke plant, was applied to the adsorption of coking wastewater. In this study, coking coal was directly treated with sulfuric acid to improve its surface properties and adsorption ability. Acid treatment was carried out at various concentrations, by varying from 0.001 to 1 mol/L. The samples were characterized by ash content analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrosc...