The present study aimed to evaluate the stability of Human Adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2) and Murine Norovirus 1 (MNV-1) in surface freshwater samples stored at different temperatures. For HAdV2 the stability decreased with increasing temperatures (−80 > −20 > 4 > 22 °C). The time required to reach one log reduction in viral titers (T90) was similar among all the times and temperatures by different cell-culture based methods and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The HAdV2 stability decreased with the time of storage temperature and methods employed, aside from samples stored at 22 and 4 °C which showed the lowest T90 values (50 days). For MNV-1, the samples stored at 22 and −20 °C showed higher log10 decay values, followed by 4 and −80 °C; while genome persistence was ranked as −80 > −20 > 4 > 22 °C. The T90 values were lower for samples stored at 22 °C (33 days), followed by 4, −20 and −80 °C with 111, 100 and 333 days, respectively. The results indicate that, under laboratory storage conditions, freshwater samples should be kept at 4 °C and at −80 °C for short- and long-term periods, respectively. This study provided useful information about thermal and temporal stability of the enteric viruses regarding sample storage conditions.
Phosphorus control protects surface waters
Phosphorus is the decisive factor for excessive algae and plant growth in water bodies, that’s why quality standards require reductions in the amount of phosphorus released from wastewater treatment plants into rivers and lakes. In recent years, the outlet limit values have not only been reduced on national levels. Depending on the vulnerability of ecosystems, especially low target values have been defined on regional levels. Examples are regional values for Lake Constance, the Baltic Sea or the Colorado...
Case study - Investigation of leachate from landfill using integrated sampling
Project referenceProject:Pilot project in Ersmarksdeponin landfill in Umeå countyCustomer:Umeå county, SwedenProject period1999Nature of task:Development of new monitoring strategy for landfill: Time integrated monitoring of bioavailable fraction of PAH and PCB in landfill leachate (surface water and groundwater); In-situ monitoring of free metals; Monitoring of accute leachate toxicity; Monitoring of TOC and physical parameters of leachate SummaryThe content of leachate from municipal...
Case study - Monitoring of pollution in the surface water in urban area
Project referenceProject:Pilot project in Umeå CountyCustomer:Umeå County, SwedenProject period2004Nature of task: time integrated monitoring of PCBs, PAHs, OCPs, Toxicity and metals in three streams in Umeå city area.SummaryPassive sampling devices SPMD and DGT were deployed in five sites in Djupbäcken stream for four weeks period. After retrieval SPMDs were analyzed for PCB (79 isomer), PAHs, OCPs, toxicity and metals. Chemical pollution in the river has decreased compare with the year...
Spatial and seasonal variation of organic pollutants in surface water using multivariate ...
In this study, analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed in order to evaluate the concentration profile of organic contaminants found in three main river from central Transylvania, Romania. Samples were collected from nine sampling stations, in two different sampling campaigns (wet season and dry season). Water samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twelve...
Case study - Sheet metal fabrication & surface wipe analysis
A manufacturing company uses cutting oils to produce sheet metal to assemble elevators. The metal must be cleaned after production. Wipe samples were collected by the client and sent to Sitelab to monitor and adjust a new cleaning system installed.