Tobacco smoke-dependent changes in cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, and 2E1 protein expressions in fetuses, newborns, pregnant rats, and human placenta
Tobacco smoke (TS) was described as a mixture of numerous cytochrome P450 (P450) substrates, inducers, and inhibitors. These inducers and inhibitors may modify drug clearance and xenobiotic or endogenous metabolism affecting P450s expression. In the present study, the effect of gestation and TS on: (1) cytochrome P450 CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1 protein expressions, and (2) cytochrome P450-linked microsomal enzyme activities, were studied in fetal rat liver, rat, and human placenta and in newborn and adult rat hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Non-pregnant and pregnant 4-month-old female Wistar rats were exposed to TS (500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg carbon monoxide per m3 air) in a toxicological chamber for 3 weeks (6 h daily, 5 days weekly). Human placentas were sampled from non-smoking, passive smoking, or active smoking primiparas. The efficacy of exposure was assessed by measuring urine cotinine levels. The TS-dependent inductory effect on the expression of CYP1A1 and 1A2 and related monooxygenase activities, and the inhibitory/inductory effect on CYP2E1 expression in rat tissues were observed. Pregnancy was associated with decreased levels of constitutive CYP1A1 and 2E1 in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues, TS-inducible CYP1A2 expression in the liver, and CYP1A1 expression in lungs and heart, but had no inhibitory effect on TS-inducible CYP1A1 and 2E1 expression, EROD, and P450-cooperated enzyme activities in the liver, kidney, and, in the latter case, in the heart. The presence of TS-induced CYP1A1 protein was confirmed in rat and human placenta and showed in newborn liver and lungs. CYP1A2 and 2E1 proteins were detectable in fetal rat liver. It was concluded that the expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, and 2E1, which metabolize some drugs and activate carcinogens, is controlled by age-, pregnancy-, and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms in rats. Gestational differences in the regulation of expression of CYP1A subfamily members are not excluded. CYP1A1 and 2E1, but not CYP1A2 inductory mechanisms seem to be functional in fetal liver at day 21 of pregnancy but they appeared to be uninducible under a TS exposure. In TS-exposed pregnant females and fetuses the effects of metabolic activation of CYP1A1 and 1A2 substrates might be reduced because of lower CYP expressions or poor induction, respectively.