Tolerable Level of Lifetime Cadmium Intake Estimated as a Benchmark Dose Low, Based on Excretion of ;2-Microglobulin in the Cadmium-Polluted Regions of the Kakehashi River Basin, Japan
Recently, a benchmark dose (BMD) approach defined by Crump was used to estimate the threshold levels of toxic substances (GAylor et al, 1998). BMD is a statistical lower confidence limit to a dose producing some predetermined increase in response rate, such as 0.01-0.1 in the abnormal rates of substances. The benchmark dose low (BMDL) is defined as the value corresponding to the lower 95% confidence interval of the BMD and can be used instead of the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) (Gaylor et. al, 1998) in the evaluation of a dose-response relationship.