Egypt has been undergoing intense dynamics since the 25 January 2011 revolution, with people aspiring for positive democratic and social changes. As Egypt attempts to further industrialise and modernise its economy, energy and water security are some of the most pressing challenges. The time to address these problems is now, but through a different economic paradigm of low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive national development, known as ‘green economy’ or ‘circular economy’ (CE) in China. The experience of China was selected because its challenges were similar to Egypt: accelerating economic growth and industrial expansion. After China’s rapid industrialisation in the 1980s, serious environmental pollution stimulated Chinese leaders to develop an alternative economic model based on sustainable development. Focusing on the CE of the manufacturing sector in China, this paper reflects on and draws lessons from China’s experiences in implementing cleaner production (CP). The research reviews the systems implemented to promote CP in China as well as gaps in their efforts to reach CE at the firm-level. It reflects on the adequacy of Egypt’s current policies to attain a green economy in its manufacturing industries.
Keywords: cleaner production, green economy, circular economy, energy efficiency, industry, China, Egypt