Keywords: community-based management, community participation, environmental management, participation levels, Namibia, Pakistan, Philippines, Zimbabwe, Mexico, decision-making, labour, workforce, costs, membership numbers, project performance, scientists, stakeholders, property regimes, stimulation, implementation, collective action, financial intervention, technical support, consultancies, education, alternative management concepts, community enterprises, social goals, commercial goals, wildlife conservation, water supply, timber industry, forestry, Nuevo San Juan, Mzingwane, Balian, sustainable society, sustainability, sustainable development
Towards a sustainable community-based management: an assessment of community participation level
Aiming to assess the community participation level in community-based environmental projects, this paper reviews five selected cases from five countries, namely Namibia, Pakistan, Philippines, Zimbabwe and Mexico. Four indicators of community participation (i.e. decision-making power, labour contribution, cost bearing and number of community members involved) are analysed. As the result, two cases with low, one case with medium and two cases with high-community participation level are identified. Besides, a positive correlation between community participation level and projects' performance is also indicated. Finally, the authors recommend scientists and relevant stakeholders to work out the details of property regimes, identify proper stimulation in implementing the collective action concept, provide intervention not merely in financial form but in technical support, consulting and education, and consider an alternative management concept (community-based enterprise) that focuses on both social and commercial goals.