Keywords: innovation systems, innovation policy, systems thinking, resource-based view, institutions, coopetition, game theory, resource commitment, cognitive culture, mental models, world views, globalisation
Towards a systems approach to innovation systems and policy
The innovation system is perceived as an ensemble of resources committed to interrelated innovation activities. The question arising is how the innovation system becomes one (a system), i.e., what are the mechanisms that govern the alignment of resources and activities in innovative directions. Alignment stems from institutional arrangements and strategic intent. These operate as mechanisms of stretch and leverage within an environment of coopetition and connexity. Central amongst them is the evolution of cognitive-cultural elements that, in the form of mental models (worldviews), drive economic action and interaction. This cognitive culture is a key factor characterising and distinguishing innovation systems.