For a hardcopy of this article, printed in the Netherlands, an estimated 100 l of water have been used. Most of the water is required in the forestry stage, due to evapotranspiration (green and blue water). In addition, the water footprint during the industrial stage, as accounted for in this study, consists of evaporation from water obtained from ground water and surface water (blue water). In this study estimates are made of water requirements for producing paper using different types of wood and in different parts of the world. The water footprint of printing and writing paper is estimated to be between 300 and 2600 m3/t (2-13 l for an A4 sheet). These estimates account for paper recovery rates in different countries. This study indicates that by using recovered paper for the production of paper the global average water footprint of paper is only 60% of what it would be if no recovered paper would be used at all. Further savings may be achieved by increasing the recovery percentages worldwide. In addition, the global water footprint of paper can be reduced by choosing production sites and wood types that are more water-efficient. The results of this study suggest that the use of recovered paper may be particularly effective in reducing water footprints. This study is a first step towards a better understanding of the significance of the water footprint of paper and the effect of using recovered paper.
- IWA Publishing
- Towards Quantification of the Water Footprint of Paper: A First ...
Phenome Research Footprint Continues to Expand
Congratulations are in order as the University of Birmingham is the most recent university to expand the footprint of metabolic phenotyping research centres around the world. As state-of-the-art metabolic phenotyping facilities able to conduct small-scale and large-scale studies in medical research and stratified medicine, the Phenome Centre Birmingham joins the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre at Imperial College London and the Singapore Phenome Centreat Nanyang Technological University as parallel research...
Study on the water footprint and external water dependency of Beijing
Beijing has experienced rapid economic development and population growth during recent decades, aggravating water scarcity. In order to investigate the water consumption of Beijing, this paper quantitatively evaluates the water footprint (WF), the intensity of the water footprint (Iwf) and the external water dependency (WD) based on the top-down and bottom-up methods. We obtain the following major conclusions: (1) the total WF in Beijing is 353 108 m³ in 2012; per capita WF is 1,704 m³, which is 8 times that of...
4 Steps to Reducing Aviation’s Carbon Footprint
We live in an increasingly hyper-mobile society with over three billion passengers being carried by the world’s airlines in 2013, and an estimated 31% growth in passenger demand by 2017. This accounts for hundreds of millions of tonnes in greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, greatly impacting global warming, climate change, and ultimately the sustainability of life on this wonderful planet we call home. It’s more important than ever in the Transportation sector to find innovative ways to decrease our...
Case study - Deep ditch minimizes footprint
Aerator/mixer system reduces effluent dischargeBOD,TSSand phosphorus A goal of many communities in planning wastewater treatment facilities is to minimize the footprint, reducing land use. To reach this goal, a Chinese municipality built theiroxidation ditchto deeper parameter depths than conventional designs but experienced serious process and mechanical issues. Officials found that not all aerators are equal. For tackling this deep ditch activated sludge system, the right system was theAire-O2Triton®aerator...
Bioethanol water footprint: life cycle optimization for water reduction
In Thailand, the Alternative Energy Development Plan has set the target to increase the use of bioethanol to 9.00 million liters per day by 2021. To achieve this goal, both freshwater availability for energy crops and best practices in bioethanol production chain management are very important issues. Therefore, this study integrates water footprint technique with the linear programing approach in order to optimize the operations decision, focusing on water footprint of the bioethanol production chains from both...