For a hardcopy of this article, printed in the Netherlands, an estimated 100 l of water have been used. Most of the water is required in the forestry stage, due to evapotranspiration (green and blue water). In addition, the water footprint during the industrial stage, as accounted for in this study, consists of evaporation from water obtained from ground water and surface water (blue water). In this study estimates are made of water requirements for producing paper using different types of wood and in different parts of the world. The water footprint of printing and writing paper is estimated to be between 300 and 2600 m3/t (2-13 l for an A4 sheet). These estimates account for paper recovery rates in different countries. This study indicates that by using recovered paper for the production of paper the global average water footprint of paper is only 60% of what it would be if no recovered paper would be used at all. Further savings may be achieved by increasing the recovery percentages worldwide. In addition, the global water footprint of paper can be reduced by choosing production sites and wood types that are more water-efficient. The results of this study suggest that the use of recovered paper may be particularly effective in reducing water footprints. This study is a first step towards a better understanding of the significance of the water footprint of paper and the effect of using recovered paper.
- IWA Publishing
- Towards Quantification of the Water Footprint of Paper: A First ...
Reducing agriculture’s water footprint
Decentralized Water Reuse Can Help Preserve Sources of Fresh WaterAs the world population grows, so does the demand for food and the need to grow more crops. In many regions of the world, water has become a scarce resource, with supplies affected by climatic changes. Not only does water scarcity limit farmers’ ability to irrigate their crops, but overdrawing groundwater supplies for irrigation contributes to water scarcity.Improving Crop Irrigation TechniquesBy improving their irrigation strategies and...
Water footprint of Xiamen city from production and consumption perspectives (2001–2012)
Providing a comprehensive insight, water footprint (WF) is widely used to analyze and address water-use issues. In this study, a hybrid of bottom-up and top-down methods is applied to calculate, from production and consumption perspectives, the WF for Xiamen city from 2001 to 2012. Results show that the average production WF of Xiamen was 881.75 Mm3/year and remained relatively stable during the study period, while the consumption WF of Xiamen increased from 979.56 Mm3/year to 1,664.97 Mm3/year over the study...
Phenome Research Footprint Continues to Expand
Congratulations are in order as the University of Birmingham is the most recent university to expand the footprint of metabolic phenotyping research centres around the world. As state-of-the-art metabolic phenotyping facilities able to conduct small-scale and large-scale studies in medical research and stratified medicine, the Phenome Centre Birmingham joins the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre at Imperial College London and the Singapore Phenome Centre at Nanyang Technological University as parallel research...
Study on the water footprint and external water dependency of Beijing
Beijing has experienced rapid economic development and population growth during recent decades, aggravating water scarcity. In order to investigate the water consumption of Beijing, this paper quantitatively evaluates the water footprint (WF), the intensity of the water footprint (Iwf) and the external water dependency (WD) based on the top-down and bottom-up methods. We obtain the following major conclusions: (1) the total WF in Beijing is 353 108 m³ in 2012; per capita WF is 1,704 m³, which is 8 times that of...
4 Steps to Reducing Aviation’s Carbon Footprint
We live in an increasingly hyper-mobile society with over three billion passengers being carried by the world’s airlines in 2013, and an estimated 31% growth in passenger demand by 2017. This accounts for hundreds of millions of tonnes in greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, greatly impacting global warming, climate change, and ultimately the sustainability of life on this wonderful planet we call home. It’s more important than ever in the Transportation sector to find innovative ways to decrease our...