John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids‐borne triclosan in food crops

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial compound commonly found in biosolids. Thus, plants grown in biosolids‐amended soil may be exposed to TCS. The authors evaluated the plant toxicity and accumulation potential of biosolids‐borne TCS in two vegetables (lettuce and radish) and a pasture grass (bahia grass). Vegetables were grown in growth chambers and grass in a greenhouse. Biosolids‐amended soil had TCS concentrations of 0.99, 5.9, and 11 mg/kg amended soil. These TCS concentrations represent typical biosolids containing concentrations of 16 mg TCS/kg applied at agronomic rates for 6 to 70 consecutive years, assuming no TCS loss. Plant yields (dry wt) were not reduced at any TCS concentration and the no observed effect concentration was 11 mg TCS/kg soil for all plants. Significantly greater TCS accumulated in the below‐ground biomass than in the above‐ground biomass. The average bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 0.43 ± 0.38 in radish root, 0.04 ± 0.04 in lettuce leaves, 0.004 ± 0.002 in radish leaves, and <0.001 in bahia grass. Soybean (grain) and corn (leaves) grown in our previous field study where soil TCS concentrations were lower (0.04–0.1 mg/kg) had BAF values of 0.06 to 0.16. Based on the authors' data, they suggest a conservative first approximate BAF value of 0.4 for risk assessment in plants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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