John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Toxicity of Cúspide 480SL® spray mixture formulation of glyphosate to aquatic organisms

In 2011, a formulation of glyphosate called Cúspide 480SL® was chosen to replace Roundup‐SL®, Fuete‐SL®, and Gly‐41® for the control of Erythroxylum coca in Colombia. Cúspide 480SL contains the active ingredient glyphosate isopropylamine (IPA) salt, which is the same active ingredient used in previous formulations. However, Cúspide 480SL contains an alkyl polyglycoside surfactant rather than the polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactant used in other formulations and known to be more toxic to non‐primary producing aquatic organisms than glyphosate itself. An adjuvant, Cosmo‐Flux F411, and water also are added to the spray mixture before application. Aquatic ecosystems adjacent to the target coca fields might be exposed to the spray mix, placing aquatic organisms at risk. Because there were no toxicity data for spray mixture on aquatic organisms, acute toxicity tests were conducted on aquatic plants; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Lemna minor, invertebrates; Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hyalella azteca, Chironomus dilutus, Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus, Planorbella pilsbryi, Daphnia magna; and fish; Pimephales promelas, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush using the Cúspide 480SL spray mix. Based on the EC50 values for similar organisms, the spray mixture was less toxic to aquatic organisms than formulations previously used for the control of coca (i.e., Roundup‐SL, Fuete‐SL, and Gly‐41). A hazard assessment for the Cúspide 480SL spray mix, using estimated worst‐case exposure scenario concentrations and EC50 values from the toxicity tests, indicated de minimis hazard for the tested aquatic animals, with hazard quotients all <<1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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