John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Toxicity of fullerene (C60) to sediment‐dwelling invertebrate Chironomus riparius larvae

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An environmentally realistic method to test fullerene (C60) toxicity to the benthic organism Chironomus riparius was created by allowing suspended fullerenes to settle down, making a layer on top of the sediment. To test the hypothesis that higher food concentrations will reduce toxic responses, two food concentrations were tested (0.5 and 0.8% Urtica sp.) in sediment containing fullerene masses of 0.36 to 0.55 mg/cm2 using a 10‐d chronic test. In the 0.5% food level treatments, there were significant differences in all growth‐related endpoints compared with controls. Fewer effects were observed for the higher food treatment. Fullerene agglomerates were observed by electron microscopy in the gut, but no absorption into the gut epithelial cells was detected. In the organisms exposed to fullerenes, microvilli were damaged and were significantly shorter. The potential toxicity of fullerene to C. riparius appears to be caused by morphological changes, inhibiting larval growth. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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