John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Toxicity of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to new insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles

0
An initiative within the U.S. military is targeting the replacement of traditional munitions constituents (MCs) with insensitive munitions (IMs) to reduce risk of accidental detonation. The purpose of the present study was to comparatively assess toxicity of the traditional MCs 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5‐trinitroperhydro‐1,3,5‐triazine (RDX) with the new IM constituents 2, 4‐ dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3‐nitro‐1, 2, 4‐triazol‐5‐one (NTO). The following exposure durations were performed with Rana pipiens (leopard frog) tadpoles: TNT and DNAN – 96‐h and 28‐d; RDX – 10‐d and 28‐d; NTO – 28‐d. The 96‐h LC50s values and 95% confidence intervals for TNT and DNAN were 4.4 mg/L TNT (4.2, 4. 7) and 24.3 mg/L DNAN (21.3, 27.6), respectively. No significant impacts on survival were observed in the 10‐d exposure to RDX up to 25.3 mg/L. Effects on tadpole swimming distance were observed with a LOEC of 5.9 mg/L RDX. In the 28‐d exposures, the LOECs for survival for TNT, DNAN, and NTO were 0.003 mg/L, 2.4 mg/L, and 5.0 mg/L, respectively. No significant mortality was observed in the RDX chronic 28‐d exposure up to the highest treatment level tested of 28.0 mg/L. Neither tadpole developmental stage nor growth was significantly affected in any of the 28‐d exposures. R. pipiens were very sensitive to chronic TNT exposure with a LOEC three orders of magnitude lower than IM constituents DNAN and NTO. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

Customer comments

No comments were found for Toxicity of the conventional energetics TNT and RDX relative to new insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO in Rana pipiens tadpoles. Be the first to comment!