John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida exposed to simulated soil solutions

To improve our understanding of metal bioavailability to soil‐living invertebrates, the effect of porewater composition on the toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida (Collembola) was investigated. Assuming that pore water is the main exposure route, F. candida was exposed to simulated soil solutions of different composition. Toxicity of copper was slightly lower in a calcium only solution than in a multi‐cation solution. With increasing copper concentrations from 0.005 to 1.37 mM Cu, internal copper concentrations similarly increased in both exposure solutions, suggesting a single cation nutrient solution is suitable for testing F. candida. In the second experiment, the animals were exposed for seven days to copper and cadmium in simplified soil solutions with different calcium (0.2, 0.8, 3.2, 12.8 mM Ca) and pH levels (5.0, 6.0, 7.0). LC50 values decreased with time in both the calcium and pH series. A hormetic‐type effect was observed for copper in the second test, as well as in the calcium only solution in the first experiment. Due to stronger hormesis, LC50s for copper were higher at lower calcium concentrations. For cadmium, LC50 values were higher at higher calcium concentrations suggesting competition of calcium with the free cadmium ion. Toxicity of cadmium increased with decreasing pH while copper was more toxic at intermediate pH. The results show that a toxicodynamics approach can help improving the interpretation of metal toxicity to soil invertebrates taking into account soil solution properties. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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