Keywords: tracking, tracing, goodsflows, external logistics, transportation
Tracking and tracing: principles and practice
The meaning of the concepts "tracking" and "tracing" are clarified, trying to avoid overlap and making them a complementary pair. Tracking and tracing systems are classified using eight attributes. Seven applications of tracking and tracing systems are analysed using these attributes. It is seen that most existing tracking and tracing systems are of a relatively simple type, but current plans and designs lead one to expect more advanced systems in the near future.