Traffic emission effects on ambient air pollution by PM2.5–related PAH in Upper Silesia, Poland
The ambient concentration of particle–bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in two industrial towns in Upper Silesia, Poland. The 24 h samples of PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) were collected simultaneously at busy roads (or crossroads) and at an urban background site. Additionally, the samples were collected during the heaviest traffic density (rush hours, from 8 am to 6 pm) at the five crossroads with the most traffic in Zabrze. The impact of traffic emission resulted in the specific distribution of particular PAH concentrations, PAH groups and diagnostic ratio values for all sampling points. The emission of diesel engine cars was significant and influenced dust and PAH concentrations. At four crossroads (including one at which the measurements were carried out for 24 h), the PAH profiles corresponded to that observed for gasoline engine exhausts. At the crossroad in Zabrze, the road in Ruda Ślaska and urban area backgrounds without for traffic emission, the concentration of PM2.5 and PM–related PAHs can be affected by hard coal, wood and crude oil combustion.
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, organic pollution, road traffic, crossroads, exhaust emissions, diagnostic ratios, municipal emissions, fine particles, Poland, traffic emissions, air quality, air pollution, PM25, particulate matter, vehicle emissions, diesel engines, coal combustion, wood combustion, crude oil combustion