Keywords: R&, D management, innovation, forecasting, technology management, competitiveness, scientists/engineers
Trends in R&D human resources and funding in the major industrialised countries
The recent geopolitical changes in the world, the technological advancements, and the globalisation of the economy are changing the global competitive environment. Individual countries have to look several years into the future, consider alternative scenarios for that environment, and develop analogous national policy. R&D policy which will greatly affect the future of an economy and its competitiveness cannot be ignored. Comparative trends for two of the factors that could affect R&D and innovation, i.e. the density of scientists and engineers in R&D and R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP, are identified for some major industrialised countries. They show the general direction of each of these countries with respect to these important factors. These analyses are necessary for national public policy planning in R&D and innovation. Similar studies could be carried out regarding other factors that have an impact upon R&D and innovation.