Keywords: emergency planning, municipality, risk analysis, vulnerabilities analysis, mini risk analysis, preparedness, emergency management, Norway
Universal and contextual tools as a double strategy in emergency planning
Emergency planning is normally focused on larger unexpected events. A basic planning tool is the risk and vulnerability analysis (RAV) based on a top-down rational planning process. In this paper, we discuss a concept of mini-risk analysis (MRA) as an additional strategy to cope with accidents and disasters in the local community. MRAs focus on daily risks and small incidents. The MRA argument claims that if the employees are accustomed to cope with daily incidents, this competence will enhance their capacity to mitigate disasters. Findings from two small Norwegian municipalities indicate that the MRA strategy is a complementary tool in emergency planning, taking care of aspects poorly dealt with in a top-down rational planning process like the RAVs. The main challenge is to combine the two approaches in emergency planning.