This paper examines universal and regional approaches to resolving international disputes over shared freshwater resources, primarily through an analysis of selected case studies. It reviews the relevant multilateral and basin-wide legal regimes with a view to identifying regional trends. The exercise reveals that countries in different regions of the world have developed distinctive schemes to resolve their disputes over water. Generally, watercourse states in Africa and Europe appear to prefer to use negotiations and joint bodies as the means to settle conflicts but are willing also to accept third-party involvement, including arbitration and adjudication. On the other hand, in North America and, in particular, Asia, joint institutions and technical bodies play the most dominant role, with practically no recourse by states to compulsory third-party settlement.
Deeper Dive Into Zero Waste
Credential and certification programs are available to universities and businesses to guide initiatives and achieve a minimum of 90 percent diversion. Zero Waste training at Arizona State University includes sorts of the trash, recycling and organics bins to identify and eliminate challenging materials. Sorting contents of front-of-house bins, directed by Stephanie Barger of GBCI’s Zero Waste program (on right in front), shown above. Photo courtesy of Sodexo At Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe, a...
Liverpool university guild of students - Case study
Background Liverpool Guild of Students, the students union for the University of Liverpool has its mainoffices and activities locatedjusta street width away from the city cathedral, is afocal point for any student studying at the University. The recent refurbishment of the Guildsaw the redesign and incorporation of underground band practice rooms, cinema, dance rooms, bakery class rooms, upstairs included a complete modernisation of the main theatre and the total refurbishment of the dining halls, gig venue and...
How to set up an office recycling program
The Paperless Project states the average office worker uses 10,000 sheets of paper a year, and 45% of paper used by office workers is trash by the end of the day. CalRecycle reports that over 785,000 tons of recyclable office paper are disposed of every year in California alone. The good news is that there’s a huge opportunity for offices to make an impact on the amount of waste they divert from landfill through recycling paper alone. Here’s 10 tips to help you set up a successful office recycling...
Tips for Complying with the New York City Recycling Mandates.
The NYC Department of Sanitation (DOS) states that it’s illegal for recyclables to be collected in the same bag as garbage. Here’s 5 top tips to help you avoid facing penalties: 1.Keep recycling and trash together. Reduce your stream contamination by keeping waste and recycling bins together. If bins become separated people will use the closest bin rather than the correct bin to toss their waste. The NYC DOS states that it’s illegal for recycling to be collected in the same bag as trash, or...
Are Universal Wastes DOT Regulated?
The answer is yes, no, and maybe. Under the DOT regulations, hazardous wastes are regulated in all modes (ground, air, rail, vessel) of transportation. EPA has classified specific hazardous waste as Universal Waste to streamline the process and encourage recycling of these materials (see 40 CFR 273). EPA has specifically addressed the DOT requirements for these waste at 40 CFR 273.52 as follows: § 273.52 – Waste management.(a) A universal waste transporter must comply with all applicable U.S....