Unplanned urbanization: Assessment through calculation of environmental degradation index
Abstract: Benzene Exposure was evaluated in adults and children living in Adelaide, South Australia by measuring benzene and urinary s-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA). To determine of benzene exposure in each subject the personal passive samplers was used and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography system equipped to flame ionization detector. The level of SPMA was determined by competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in children. The mean concentration of benzene in Summer and Winter were 1.62±1.43 and 1.36±0.87 ppb respectively. There was a significant difference between exposure to benzene for subjects with less and more than 6 hours activity over days of week (p<0.05). The mean urinary concentrations levels of SPMA adjusted to creatinene for children that living less and more than 200 meters distance from main road were 1.56 and 4.67 mol/mol creatinene, respectively and the significant difference was seen in two groups (p<0.005). Data shows, that SPMA can be utilized as a biomarker for exposure to benzene in children. Exposure to benzene is more for children that living near to main road compare to other children. Adults have more activity in out side of home has more exposure to benzene than other people.