John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Uptake and metabolism of individual PBDE congeners by embryonic zebrafish

Embryonic zebrafish were used to compare the uptake and metabolism for six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 183) and identified metabolites from static exposures at 24 and 120 hours post fertilization. An inverse relationship was observed between PBDE uptake and their octanol‐water partitioning coefficient (uptake of BDE 28 and 47 > 99 and 100 > 153 and 183). Debromination metabolites were identified in all congeners (excluding BDE 28) tested in the 120 hpf tissue samples. Interestingly, BDE 153 underwent meta‐debromination, forming BDE 47 and 99. Gene transcription analysis was conducted at 120 hpf to identify potential metabolic pathways for PBDEs examined in this study (GSTpi, deiodinase 1 and 2, and CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT5g). The greatest induction was of UGT5g for all congeners, and deiodinase transcription was also upregulated by BDEs 28, 47, and 183. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were upregulated by BDEs 28, 47, 99, and 183. The least alterations in gene transcription were in the BDE 153‐exposed embryos. A clear primary pathway of debromination metabolism was not identified, however upregulation of these different genes indicate the fish are responding to exposure of PBDEs. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the most bioavailable congeners are also the congeners with the highest reported toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC

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